What the Army Does

From the CCC Enrollees Handbook circa 1940:


     ARMY operation of the CCC heads up in the Secretary of War and, under him, in the Chief of Staff of the Army. General policies for administration of CCC camps are directed by the Secretary of War or the Chief of Staff. Actual operations for the CCC are in the hands of the commanding officers on the nine Army corps areas. Under this officer, usually a high-ranking general of the Army, CCC work is directed by various branches of the Army. The Adjutant General's department, for instance, handles records, reports and correspondence. It also has charge of CCC camp welfare, including education. The Quartermaster Corps is the purchasing branch of the Army. It buys or manufactures all supplies, subsistence and equipment used by the Army in its CCC work. It also has charge of railroad transportation and the building ofg the camps. The Finance department handles all funds appropriated by Congress for the CCC. The Mdeical department is in charge of CCC medical and hospital care and of camp sanitation. Other units of the Army, such as the Chaplains' Corps, the Signal Corps, the Veterinarian Corps and the Dental Corps, also are used in CCC administration.

     In Washington, regular Army officers handle CCC work along with their other duties. One officer is designated to represent the War Department on the CCC Director's advisory council. At the coprs area headquarters, the Army, likewise, uses its Regular officers to direct and supervise CCC operations within the corps area. Some corps areas are divided into CCC districts, some even into sub-districts or sectors. This is for closer supervision of the camps. Districts are commanded by Regular Army officers.

     Until July 1, 1939, except for the first few month of the CCC in 1933, all camps were administered by Reserve officers of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps or warrant officers of the Coast Guard. Many Reserve officers were assigned to positions at sub-district, district and corps area headquarters. They also were appointed as medical officers, dentists and chaplains. In addition, the Army employed many civilians in clerical and other capacities at these headquarters, and as camp physicians and ministers.

     Reserve officers so employed were called to active duty with the Army for the period of their appointment. In June 1939, CCC officials decided to replace these reserve officers with civilians. To be eligible for such appointments, however, a civilian must hold a Reserve commission in the Army, Navy or Marine Corps. This change was ordered to be completed by January 1, 1940. In event there are not enough civilians with Reserve commissions wanting CCC employment, civilians without Reserve status may be appointed.

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