CCC Organizational Summary
The Following is excerpted from Preliminary Inventory of the Records of The Civilian Conservation Corps, PI 11 (Revised)/RG35 published by the National Archives and Record Service, General Services Administration, 1980.
" The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was created by an act of Congress on June 28, 1937 (50 Stat. 319), as successor to the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW). Under the authority of an emergency employment act of March 31, 1933 (48 Stat. 22), President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the ECW by Executive Order 6101 on April 5, 1933. The President's Reorganization Plan No. 1, April 25, 1939 (53 Stat. 1424), placed the CCC under the newly created Federal Security Agency. An appropriation act of July 30, 1942 (56 Stat. 569, provided for the liquidation of the CCC not later than June 30, 1943. Congress continued to make appropriations for liquidation until the authority expired on June 30, 1948.
The mission of the CCC was primarily to provide work for employed youths and, to a lesser extent, for war veterans and Indians. Allotments from the enrollees' salaries provided income to their families. Tn addition to conservation projects on public lands, work was in the public interest.
The CCC performed over 150 types of work. Most projects involved the protection, restoration, improvement, utilization and maintenance of natural resources of Federal and State lands and waters. The CCC reported the following general types of work performed by enrollees: (1) forest culture, (2) forest protection, (3) erosion control, (4) flood control, (5) irrigation and drainage, (6) transportation improvements, (7) structural improvements, (8) range development, (9) aid to wildlife, and (10) landscape and recreational development.
On April 5, 1933, President Roosevelt appointed Robert Fechner, an attorney on labor relations, the Director of ECW. Fechner remained Director of ECW and its successor, the CCC, until his death, December 31, 1939. James J. McEntee, Executive Assistant Director, then became Director and retained that position until the liquidation of the CCC. The President also appointed the Secretaries (or their representatives) of the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, War, and Labor as members of an Advisory Council to the Director.
The Office of the Director of the CCC located at Washington, D.C., consisted of the Divisions of Selection, Investigations, Safety, Planning and Public Relations, Research and Statistics, and Automotive and Priorities. Liaison officers and special investigators made up the field staff.
Several Federal departments and agencies cooperated with the Director in the enrollment of men, administration of camps, and planning and supervision of work programs. The Department of Labor created a Division of Selection to coordinate the selection of enrollees through cooperation with State and local welfare agencies. This Division was moved to the Office of the Director in 1939. The Veterans Administration and the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs selected veterans and Indians, respectively.
The War Department received the selectees at conditioning centers and appointed the camp commanders and administrative assistants. The War Department was responsible for the physical examination, enrollment, transportation, equipment, housing and food, clothing, medical services, and recreational and religious facilities for enrollees. The Army's Chief of Finance served as fiscal agent for the CCC. The Office of Education assisted in providing educational programs.
Agencies within the Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior (known as technical services of agencies) supplied most of the personnel who supervised work projects. The Forest Service, National Park Service, and the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) supervised projects were the Bureau of Biological Survey, Bureau of Agriculture Engineering, and the Bureau of Animal Industry in the Department of Agriculture; and the Bureau of Reclamation, General Land Office , Grazing Service, and the Office of Indian Affairs in the Department of the Interior. The national emphasis on military preparedness in the early 1940's led the CCC to place emphasis on training and work programs that contributed to the national defense"
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